|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2022
|Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activities Disclosure [Abstract]|
Note 6 – Derivative Instruments
We utilize derivative instruments, typically swaps, put options and call options which are placed with financial institutions that we believe are acceptable credit risks, to mitigate our financial exposure to commodity price volatility associated with anticipated sales of our future production and volatility in interest rates attributable to our variable rate debt instruments. Our derivative instruments are not designated as hedges for accounting purposes. While the use of derivative instruments limits the risk of adverse commodity price and interest rate movements, such use may also limit the beneficial impact of future product revenues and interest expense from favorable commodity price and interest rate movements. From time to time, we may enter into incremental derivative contracts in order to increase the notional volume of production we are hedging, restructure existing derivative contracts or enter into other derivative contracts resulting in modification to the terms of existing contracts. In accordance with our internal policies, we do not utilize derivative instruments for speculative purposes.
For our commodity derivatives, we typically combine swaps, purchased put options, purchased call options, sold put options and sold call options in order to achieve various hedging objectives. Certain of these objectives result in combinations that operate as collars which include purchased put options and sold call options, three-way collars, which include purchased put options, sold put options and sold call options, and enhanced swaps, which include either sold put options or sold call options with the associated premiums rolled into an enhanced fixed price swap, among others.
The following is a general description of the commodity derivative instruments we employ:
Swaps. A swap contract is an agreement between two parties pursuant to which the parties exchange payments at specified dates on the basis of a specified notional amount, or the swap price, with the payments calculated by reference to specified commodities or indexes. The purchasing counterparty to a swap contract is required to make a payment to selling counterparty based on the amount of the swap price in excess of the settlement price multiplied by the notional volume if the settlement price for any settlement period is below the swap price for such contract. We are required to make a payment to the counterparty based on the amount of the settlement price in excess of the swap price multiplied by the notional volume if the settlement price for any settlement period is above the swap price for such contract.
Put Options. A put option has a defined strike, or floor price. We have entered into put option contracts in the roles of buyer and seller depending upon our particular hedging objective. The buyer of the put option pays the seller a premium to enter into the contract. When the settlement price is below the floor price, the seller pays the buyer an amount equal to the difference between the settlement price and the strike price multiplied by the notional volume. When the settlement price is above the floor price, the put option expires worthless. Certain of our purchased put options have deferred premiums. For the deferred premium puts, we agree to pay a premium to the counterparty at the time of settlement.
Call Options. A call option has a defined strike, or ceiling price. We have entered into call option contracts in the roles of buyer and seller depending upon our particular hedging objective. The buyer of the call option pays the seller a premium to enter into the call option. When the settlement price is above the ceiling price, the seller pays the buyer an amount equal to the difference between the settlement price and the strike price multiplied by the notional volume. When the settlement price is below the ceiling price, the call option expires worthless.
Two-Way Collars. A two-way collar is an arrangement that contains a sold call option, which establishes a maximum price (ceiling price) we will receive for the contract volumes, and a purchased put, which establishes a minimum price (floor price) we will receive based on an index price. We have entered into two-way collars periodically to achieve particular hedging objectives. When the index price is higher than the ceiling price, we pay the counterparty the difference between the index price and ceiling price. If the index price is between the floor and ceiling prices, no payments are due from either party. When the index price is below the floor price, we will receive the difference between the floor price and the index price.
The following table sets forth our commodity derivative contracts as of December 31, 2022:
Interest Rate Derivatives
Through May 2022, we had a series of interest rate swap contracts (the “Interest Rate Swaps”) establishing fixed interest rates on a portion of our variable interest rate indebtedness. The notional amount of the Interest Rate Swaps totaled $300 million, with us paying a weighted average fixed rate of 1.36% on the notional amount, and the counterparties paying a variable rate equal to LIBOR. As of December 31, 2022, we did not have any interest rate derivatives.
Financial Statement Impact of Derivatives
The impact of our derivatives activities on income is included within Derivatives gains (losses) on our consolidated statements of operations. Derivative contracts that have expired at the end of a period, but for which cash had not been received or paid as of the balance sheet date, have been recognized as components of Accounts receivable (see Note 5) and Accounts payable and accrued liabilities (see Note 12) on the consolidated balance sheets. Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by operating activities include derivative losses and cash settlements that are reported under Net losses (gains) and Cash settlements and premiums (paid) received, net, on our consolidated statements of cash flows, respectively.
The following table summarizes the effects of our derivative activities for the periods presented:
The following table summarizes the fair value of our derivative instruments, which we elect to present on a gross basis, as well as the locations of these instruments on our consolidated balance sheets as of the dates presented:
As of December 31, 2022, we reported net commodity derivative liabilities of $41.3 million. The contracts associated with these positions are with seven counterparties for commodity derivatives, all of which are investment grade financial institutions and are participants in the Credit Facility. This concentration may impact our overall credit risk in that these counterparties may be similarly affected by changes in economic or other conditions. Non-performance risk is incorporated by utilizing discount rates adjusted for the credit risk of our counterparties if the derivative is in an asset position, and our own credit risk if the derivative is in a liability position.
The agreements underlying our derivative instruments include provisions for the netting of settlements with the counterparties for contracts of similar type. We have neither paid to, nor received from, our counterparties any cash collateral in connection with our derivative positions. Furthermore, our derivative contracts are not subject to margin calls or similar accelerations. No significant uncertainties exist related to the collectability of amounts that may be owed to us by these counterparties.
See Note 13 for information regarding the fair value of our derivative instruments.
No definition available.
The entire disclosure for derivative instruments and hedging activities including, but not limited to, risk management strategies, non-hedging derivative instruments, assets, liabilities, revenue and expenses, and methodologies and assumptions used in determining the amounts.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef