Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Property and Equipment, Net

Property and Equipment, Net
3 Months Ended
Mar. 31, 2023
Property, Plant and Equipment [Abstract]  
Property and Equipment, Net
Note 6 – Property and Equipment, Net
The following table summarizes our property and equipment as of the dates presented: 
  March 31, 2023 December 31, 2022
Oil and gas properties (full cost accounting method):    
Proved $ 3,163,277  $ 3,013,854 
Unproved 43,158  41,882 
Total oil and gas properties 3,206,435  3,055,736 
Other property and equipment 1
31,307  30,969 
Total properties and equipment 3,237,742  3,086,705 
Accumulated depreciation, depletion, amortization and impairments (1,362,906) (1,277,705)
Total property and equipment, net $ 1,874,836  $ 1,809,000 
1     As of March 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022, we had $1.2 million classified as Assets held for sale excluded from above.
Unproved property costs of $43.2 million and $41.9 million have been excluded from amortization as of March 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively. We transferred $0.9 million and $0.7 million of unproved leasehold costs, including capitalized interest, associated with proved undeveloped reserves, and acreage unlikely to be drilled or expiring acreage, to the full cost pool during the three months ended March 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. We capitalized internal costs of $1.6 million and $1.4 million and interest of $0.9 million and $1.1 million during the three months ended March 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively, in accordance with our accounting policies. Average depreciation, depletion and amortization per barrel of oil equivalent of proved oil and gas properties was $19.45 and $14.98 for the three months ended March 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively.
Ceiling Test
Throughout 2022 and into 2023, commodity prices remained volatile due to supply disruptions resulting from the Russia-Ukraine war and related sanctions that began in first quarter of 2022 as well as shifts in production levels by the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (“OPEC”) and Russia (together with OPEC, “OPEC+”). Beginning with an announcement in April 2022 of production cuts which took effect in November 2022, OPEC+ changed its strategy from one which had seen gradually increasing production throughout most of 2022 to cutting production. Then in April 2023, OPEC+ announced a surprise oil output cut of approximately 1.16 million barrels of oil per day (“MMbbl/d”) bringing the total volume cuts by OPEC+ to over 3.66 MMbbl/d until the end of 2023. During 2022 and through the first quarter of 2023, WTI crude oil and natural gas prices ranged from over $120 per barrel (“bbl”) and over $9 per million British thermal units (“MMBtu”), respectively, to lows of approximately $67 per bbl and under $2 per MMBtu, respectively, due to factors discussed above.
At the end of each quarterly reporting period, the unamortized cost of our oil and gas properties, net of deferred income taxes, is limited to the sum of the estimated after-tax discounted future net revenues from proved properties adjusted for costs excluded from amortization (the “Ceiling Test”). The Ceiling Test utilizes an average of commodity prices based on the closing prices on the first day of each month for the previous 12 months. We did not record any impairments of our oil and gas properties during the three months ended March 31, 2023 or 2022.